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Electric EZGO Electric EZ GO Marathon, Medalist, TXT and RXV.

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Unread 01-01-2016, 07:01 PM   #21
JohnnieB's Avatar
Join Date: Jun 2011
Location: West Virginia
Posts: 16,119
Default Re: Solenoid clicks but motor does not engage

Ken, your golf cart is a two wire system. There is no ground, just B+ (Battery positive) and B- (Battery negative).
However, sometime people on the forum incorrectly refer to B- as ground, but the body and frame are not, or at least should not be, connected to the battery electrically.

There are two types of DC motors in carts. Series wound or SepEx (Separately Excited aka Shunt wound)
Your cart has a SepEx motor, but I'll start with a series motor since the way it works is more straightforward.

Attached is a simplified drawing of a series motor and speed controller. As you see, there is a single series path from B+ to B- through the armature and stator (aka Field) windings, solenoid contacts and F/R switch, and the speed controller.

The solenoid connects and disconnects the battery to the rest of the circuit.
The F/R switch either sends the current through the Stator winding in one direction or the other, so the motor will spin either CW or CCW.
Located between the B- and M- terminals of the speed controller are a dozen or so MOSFETs (Metal Oxide Field Effect Transistors) that are turned fully on and fully off about 18,000 time per second. How long they stay on during each on/off cycle determines how much of the battery's power the motor is allowed to draw. Technically, the output of the controller is PWM (Pulse Width Modulated) DC and the throttle input to the controller determines the percent of the duty cycle the MOSFETs are fully on.

The relative strength of the magnetic fields generated by the stator and the armature windings determine if the motor is a High-Torque motor or a High-Speed motor, or something in between. Most stock cart motor fall into the in between category.

The way a series motor is wound at the motor factory locks it into one of the above categories and the same is essentially true of SepEx motors, but since the Field (stator) and armature windings are excited (powered) separately, a SepEx motor's toque curve can be altered during operation by altering the ratio of power being sent to the the respective field and armature windings. (This process is known as field mapping and the field map must be compatible with the motor the controller is connected to.)

A SepEx controller is actually two controllers in one box. The high power one feeds the armature and its output is controlled by the throttle input. The field controller only passes about 10% of the power the armature controller passes and is controlled by a computer inside the controller that adjusts the field excitation according to the amount of current being drawn by the armature based on the field map loaded into the computer. Basically, a SepEx motor morphs from a High-Torque motor while accelerating from a standstill into a High-Speed motor as the cart gains speed.

A DCS cart does have a continuously variable speed controller, something akin to a light dimmer, but it was a failed design and was replaced after about five years of production by the PDS. They run fine when they run, but they fail a lot.

When your DCS controller fails, replace it with an Alltrax DCX or XCT controller rather than a stock DCS controller and your cart will do about 20MPH on stock height tires.
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File Type: jpg Hi Current Circuit - Series Motor -simplified.JPG (73.6 KB, 0 views)
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Unread 01-30-2016, 05:48 AM   #22
Not Yet Wild
Join Date: Dec 2015
Location: Maui
Posts: 15
Default Re: Solenoid clicks but motor does not engage

Thank you for the explanation.. Can tell you know your motors (: My cart is still moving right along but I will certainly take your advice when the day comes that the controller zaps it's last!

Thanks again for all the help

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1995 ez-go electric, controller, soleniod
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