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Unread 10-08-2016, 10:28 PM   #1
Gone Wild
Columbia
 
Join Date: Jun 2015
Location: East TN
Posts: 525
Default Reversing Switch, Directional Key Switch, & Starter Circuits

To start the engine, the starter generator spins one direction to crank for forward and spins in the opposite direction to crank for reverse. In order for the starter to spin in the opposite direction either the field windings (F1 & F2) or armature (A1 & A2) windings have to be reversed, but not both. HDs and Columbias do this by reversing the armature windings with a certain type of switch, which is described later.

All HD and Columbia models have one thing in common, the starter circuit is activated by a starter solenoid which is activated by an ignition ciruit. The ignition circuit contains a circuit breaker, key switch, microswitch, ignition coil, starter solenoid and other components, some of which are not shown in the illustrations to keep things simple. As the years went by, the wiring has changed on where certain components are wired in so your wiring may not exactly match what is shown but the concept remains the same.

TYPES OF SWITCHES

Early HD models have a control box that controls the starters circuit and a regular key switch for the ignition circuit.

Later HD models have a reversing switch (lever) that reverses the armature windings and a regular key switch for the ignition circuit.

Columbia models have a directional key switch that reverses the armature windings within it and also switches the ignition circuit. This is no ordinary type of switch. All of the starters current runs through this key switch. That is why the wires are so big.

89 Columbia models may have a factory 5 solenoid system. 1 starter solenoid with 4 solenoids wired in such a way to reverse the armature windings. They also have a directional key switch that controls the solenoids and the ignition circuit. This keeps the starters current from entering the directional key switch. This type of solenoid system is often used and modified for other models when the directional key switch goes bad instead of replacing the switch, which is often expensive.

This diagram shows how to bench test the starter:
Bench Testing a Harley Starter/Generator

The attached thumbnail shows how the starter motor is reversed and is an animated gif.
Attached Images
File Type: gif StarterWiredDirect.gif (34.9 KB, 0 views)
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Unread 10-08-2016, 10:34 PM   #2
Gone Wild
Columbia
 
Join Date: Jun 2015
Location: East TN
Posts: 525
Default Re: Reversing Switch, Directional Key Switch, & Starter Circuits

LATER HD MODELS

The first attachment shows what terminals are connected within the reversing switch when in forward or reverse. This can be used to test the switch.

The second attachment (gif) shows what happens when you turn the key on and press the accelerator in forward and reverse. As you can see there is no difference in forward and reverse in these models. The end result is this ignition circuit activates the starter solenoid which activates the starter circuit.

The third attachment (gif) shows what happens with the starter circuit. The ignition circuit is shown as energized. What happens within the reversing switch is, in forward F1 connects to A2 and A1 connects to ground, and in reverse F1 connects to A1 and A2 connects to ground. The circuits power comes from the battery, through the starter solenoid, through the F terminals of the starter, and into the F1 terminal of the reversing switch. The connections in the reversing switch and the patch of the circuit from here out decides whether the starter is in forward or reverse. Power flows out of either the A2 (forward) or A1 (reverse) terminal of the reversing switch into the armature windings of the starter. Power then flows out of the armature windings back to the other A terminal of the reversing switch which is grounded. When the circuit is complete the starter turns.
Attached Images
File Type: png LateHDContinuity.png (17.0 KB, 0 views)
File Type: gif LateHDIgnitionCircuit.gif (98.8 KB, 0 views)
File Type: gif LateHDStarterCircuit.gif (124.5 KB, 0 views)
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Unread 10-08-2016, 10:40 PM   #3
Gone Wild
Columbia
 
Join Date: Jun 2015
Location: East TN
Posts: 525
Default Re: Reversing Switch, Directional Key Switch, & Starter Circuits

COLUMBIA MODELS WITHOUT 5 SOLENOIDS

The first attachment shows what terminals are connected within the directional key switch when in forward or reverse. This can be used to test the switch. The spade terminals are for the ignition circuit and the round terminals are for the starter circuit. In other words, both the ignition circuit and starter circuit are built within one switch, unlike the HD models.

The second attachment (gif) shows what happens when you turn the key on and press the accelerator in forward and reverse. As you can see there is a slight difference in forward and reverse. In forward power comes out of terminal I to feed the rest of the circuit but in reverse power comes out of terminal G and piggybacks with terminal I (to feed the rest of the circuit) while powering a reverse buzzer. The diode prevents power from feeding back to terminal G while in forward so the buzzer doesn't sound. The end result is this ignition circuit activates the starter solenoid which activates the starter circuit.

The third attachment (gif) shows what happens with the starter circuit. The ignition circuit is shown as energized. What happens within the switch is, in forward F1 connects to A2 and A1 connects to ground, and in reverse F1 connects to A1 and A2 connects to ground. The circuits power comes from the battery, through the starter solenoid, through the F terminals of the starter, and into the E terminal of the switch. The connections in the switch and the patch of the circuit from here out decides whether the starter is in forward or reverse. Power flows out of either the F (A2-forward) or B (A1-reverse) terminal of the switch into the armature windings of the starter. Power then flows out of the armature windings back to the other terminal of the switch. That terminal is connected to the A terminal which is grounded. When the circuit is complete the starter turns.
Attached Images
File Type: png ColumbiaContinuity.png (35.6 KB, 0 views)
File Type: gif ColumbiaIgnitionCircuit.gif (113.8 KB, 0 views)
File Type: gif ColumbiaStarterCircuit.gif (141.7 KB, 0 views)
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Unread 10-08-2016, 10:47 PM   #4
Gone Wild
Columbia
 
Join Date: Jun 2015
Location: East TN
Posts: 525
Default Re: Reversing Switch, Directional Key Switch, & Starter Circuits

COLUMBIA MODELS WITH 5 SOLENOIDS

This wiring setup is a little more complex but fairly easy to understand if you understand how the other models work first.

This attachment (gif) shows what happens with the starter circuit. The animation is slowed down so you can better see what's happening. The ignition circuit drawn is very basic and is shown as energized in the animation.

These models do have the directional key switch but it isn't wired up like the other models except for the ignition circuit which still energizes the starter solenoid. There are two wires coming out of the switch to control the starter circuit. One wire is hot in forward and the other wire is hot in reverse. Each wire is connected to 2 of the 4 solenoids which turns two of them on. The solenoids are wired in such a way that allows the armature windings to be reversed.

For forward F1 needs to connect to A2 and A1 needs to connect to ground, an in reverse F1 needs to connect to A1 and A2 needs to connect to ground. The circuits power comes from the battery, through the starter solenoid, through the F terminals of the starter, and into one of the energized solenoids which connects it to either A2 or A1 on the starter. Power then flows in and out of the armature windings back to the other solenoid that is energized, which is connected to ground. When the circuit is complete the starter turns.

The wires on the solenoid piggyback each other which makes the illustration a little confusing but the circuit only goes through the solenoids that are energized by the key switch. Forward uses solenoids B and C and reverse uses solenoids A and D.
Attached Images
File Type: gif FiveSolenoidStarterCircuit.gif (154.5 KB, 0 views)
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Unread 10-10-2016, 08:32 PM   #5
Gone Wild
Columbia
 
Join Date: Jun 2015
Location: East TN
Posts: 525
Default Re: Reversing Switch, Directional Key Switch, & Starter Circuits

2 SOLENOID SYSTEM

There is a 2 solenoid setup posted in the following link that can be used. Technically it is a 3 solenoid system if you're counting the starter solenoid. All you need are the two solenoids, an on/off toggle switch, some heavy gauge wire, and possibly a new 2 position key switch for the ignition circuit.
Remote F/R Switch - HELP!

I've attached two illustrations on how that setup works.

The first attachment shows what terminals are connected within the solenoids when activated and not activated. This can be used to test the solenoids. You have to have continuity and no continuity as shown in the diagram or this wiring setup will not work. Make sure the bodies of the solenoids are grounded.

The second attachment (gif) shows what happens with the starter circuit when the toggle switch is turned on or off. If you want your reverse buzzer hooked back up, just tap into the wire after the toggle switch.
Attached Images
File Type: png TwoSolenoidContinuity.png (20.8 KB, 0 views)
File Type: gif TwoSolenoidStarterCircuit.gif (106.3 KB, 0 views)
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Unread 08-28-2017, 12:51 PM   #6
Not Yet Wild
Columbia
 
Join Date: Aug 2017
Location: Pittsburgh
Posts: 17
Default Re: Reversing Switch, Directional Key Switch, & Starter Circuits

Do you see a problem with this set up?
All my other components (starter/generator, voltage regulator, and original solenoid ) check out fine.
The cart (1985 Columbia 3 wheel) cranks and starts, but I'm getting no charge to the battery.
Attached Images
File Type: jpg wiring original.jpg (104.5 KB, 0 views)
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